Shaped by the Duke familys influence and the production of bright leaf tobacco, Durham, North Carolina, over time, has transformed from the Bull City to the City of Medicine. Duke Homestead and the American Tobacco Company showcases the effect of both tobacco and the Duke family in Durham. The Duke familys fortunes grew alongside those of the city as they rose from tobacco farmers to founders of the American Tobacco Company and influential philanthropists. Duke University, Duke Hospital, and Duke Energy as well as local churches, orphanages, textile mills, banks, and railroads can all trace their roots to the Duke family. The American Tobacco Company was the largest tobacco manufacturer in the world as well as one of the 12 founding members of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. From its founding in 1890, the American Tobacco Company was a major employer in the area, bringing income and a higher quality of life to those employed there, regardless of race or gender.